Although producing steel is carbon-intensive, we have a roadmap to get to net-zero Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions by 2050. Approximately 70% to 80% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from integrated steelmaking are associated with the use of coke and coal to melt iron in blast furnaces. U. S. Steel has always strived to be on the leading edge of the most energy-efficient production of steel using blast furnaces. Further, we are making steel by melting recycled steel scrap using electricity in electric arc furnaces (EAFs), which produces significantly less GHG emissions. U. S. Steel recognizes the importance of having both routes of steel production while transitioning to a lower-carbon economy.

In 2021, U. S. Steel published a Climate Strategy Report, which outlines our vision for achieving our net-zero goal.

Our progress toward lowering our Scope 2 emissions will continue through 2024 with important milestones. For example, U. S. Steel's second mini mill, BR2, is expected to start up in 2024, which will likely reduce our GHG emissions intensity. Entergy Arkansas’ Driver Solar project, which is located adjacent to the Big River Steel Works operations, will begin providing Big River Steel Works with up to 250 MW of solar power later this year, significantly increasing Big River Steel Works' use of renewable energy.


SCOPE 1 2021 2022 2023
U.S. Operations 20.04 18.70 19.26
USSK Operations 8.98 7.32 7.97
Total 29.03 26.02 27.23
MARKET-BASED SCOPE 2 2021 2022 2023
U.S. Operations 2.55 2.58 2.16
USSK Operations 0.08 0.13 0.12
Total 2.63 2.71 2.28


SCOPE 1 2021 2022 2023
U.S. Operations 1.68 1.70 1.64
USSK Operations 2.01 2.10 2.00
Total 1.77 1.80 1.73
MARKET-BASED SCOPE 2 2021 2022 2023
U.S. Operations 0.21 0.23 0.18
USSK Operations 0.02 0.04 0.03
Total 0.16 0.19 0.15


Integrated (Metric tons CO2e/metric tons raw steel) 1.94 0.04 1.98
Mini Mills (Metric tons CO2e/metric tons raw steel) 0.20 0.13 0.33
Tubular (Metric tons CO2e/metric tons raw steel) 0.36 0.43 0.79
Pellets (Metric tons CO2e/metric tons pellets) 0.09 0.05 0.14

U. S. Steel Annual Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity and Production for the Global Operations

The GHG emissions intensity is based on the total quantity in metric tons of GHG emissions calculated in accordance with GHG Protocol and EU ETS standards divided by the total quantity in metric tons of raw steel produced globally as published in the U. S. Steel Annual Report and that are processed into finished steel products.

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Category 2023
Category 1 – Purchased Goods and Services 9.36 million metric tons
Category 2 – Capital Goods 0.39 million metric tons
Category 3 – Fuel and Energy Related Activities 5.19 million metric tons
Category 4 – Upstream Transportation and Distribution 1.02 million metric tons
Category 6 – Business Travel 1,869 metric tons
Category 7 – Employee Commuting 13,400 metric tons


We have undertaken and planned several initiatives that will advance our progress toward our net-zero goal.

Process optimization: Process models are helping us increase efficiencies in our current steel mills.

Renewables: We are using more renewable energy to power our facilities, and we’ll continue to look for ways to increase our usage, as with the Driver Solar project at U. S. Steel’s Big River Steel Works.

Direct-reduced iron (DRI) with natural gas: DRI reduces our reliance on carbon-intensive coal and coke.

DRI with hydrogen: An emerging technology, using hydrogen will greatly reduce our direct GHG emissions from the DRI process.

Mini mills: With the addition of U. S. Steel’s Big River Steel Works, we added mini mills that rely on electric arc furnaces (EAFs), which produce 70–80% less GHG emissions than conventional blast furnace/basic oxygen furnaces. We are further expanding our mini mill footprint with the addition of BR2 later in 2024.

Carbon capture: Another emerging technology, carbon capture promises to reduce our steelmaking CO2 emissions by grabbing CO2 out of our process gas waste streams, so that it can be stored, or utilized in a variety of ways. 

Electrification and hydrogen use: Electricity and hydrogen can be used to replace carbon-containing fuels.

Electrical grid advances: Improvements to the grid, including the addition of more green energy, will lead to a reduction in Scope 2 emissions and enable Scope 1 reductions.

Offsets and credits: Any remaining emissions-reduction gaps can potentially be closed through carbon offsets or credits.


How We Are Lowering Our Emissions

Cutting emissions through recycling

Our mini mill plants, U. S. Steel’s Big River Steel Works and Fairfield Tubular, use electric arc furnaces to melt scrap steel and use it as a key component of new steel, reducing emissions and cost. The forthcoming BR2 mini mill uses the same technology, thereby increasing our recycling capability in addition to producing on average 70-80% less GHG emissions per ton of steel than a conventional integrated mill, which relies on blast furnaces or basic oxygen furnaces.